Q1 (a) What is water crisis? Suggest suitable measures for water resource management. (About 200
words). [7 Marks]
According to World Water Council, Water crisis is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people and the
environment suffers badly. As per NITI Aayog Composite Water Management Index report, In India per capita water
availability is decreasing yearly.
Measures for water resource management:-
Work on 3M formula that is meter, measure and management.
Water smart landscaping approach.
Flood irrigation should be replace by drip and sprinkle irrigation.
Enhance the cultivation of less water intensive crops like Bajra, Jowar, Pulses etc.
Rain water harvesting.
Industrial waste water management.
Grey water utilisation.
Interlinking of rivers> Water should be transported from water surplus region to water deficient region.
Focus on traditional water management system example Khadin bhund, Johad, check dams etc.
(b) Compare and contrast Gandhara school of Art with Mathura school of Art. (About 100 words) [4Marks]
Gandhara School of Art and Mathura School of Art:-
Time Period of both
Flourished under Kushana ruler.
Buddha image in both schools
Q2 (a) Reservation for women perpetuates a “proxy culture” as seen in the phenomenon of “sarpanchpatis”. In this context, discuss whether reservation can address the issue of poor participation of women in Indian politics. (About 250 words) [10Marks]
Women in India play a vital role in strengthening the grass root level democracy, they have been under represented in all
Levels of government. As per latest ECI data As of October 2021, Women represent 10.5% of the total members of the
73rd and 74th constitutional amendment act, 1992 provided not less than one third reservation for women at the local level of
Governance. However this give rise to the phenomenon of sarpanch pati i.e. Husband of elected women have wide control
over the resources of Panchayat. This give rise to the debate whether reservation is solving the poor participation of women
at local self governance level.
Perpetuates unequal status of women.
Only elite class women gain power.
Talent wipe out.
Divert attention from larger issues such as electoral reforms, use of money and muscle power.
However, because of reservation, we get many talented women sarpanch, may solve the problem of poor participation of
women by following ways:
As 2010 studies women sarpanch are much more responsible and effective in several arenas like supply of
drinking water, education, sanitation etc, as compare to their male counter part.
Cyber Chavvi, sarpanch from a village of Mewat district.
Dhani Miyan Khan village, Fatehabad Sarpanch Shushma Bhadu (UNICEF award)
Fight for all social evil against them such as discrimination, abuse etc.
Their participation is essential for building true representative democracy.
Inspiration for women.
However there are various measures need to adopt to ensure true participation of women:
Ensuring reservation inside the pol party like US, UK etc
Awareness campaign in village areas.
Training program for women elected heads.
(b) State the functions of the United Nations Human Rights Council. Also, discuss the issues faced by the Council in the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe.(About 200words). [7Marks]
UNHRC is an intergovernmental body working under the ambit of UN.
Function of UNHRC:
Protection of all human right.
Prevent and combat all human rights violation.
Provide platform to all members for better policy formation.
Promote and coordinate the mainstreaming of Human rights across the globe.
Issue associated with UNHRC:
Prone to politicization
Vague membership criteria
Issues in council election.
Biased for European nations.
Members of UNHRC are too human right violators like Pakistan.
Open ballot voting.
Strengthening UPR mechanism
Make it more inclusive.
Q3. (a) “Preamble is a key to constitution”. Comment. (About 200 words)[7 Marks]
Preamble is introduction to any law or constitution. Supreme court in Beru Bari Union, 1960, held that preamble is key to the constitution.
Why Key to the constitution?
Its provisions are elaborated in constitution.
It explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India.
Then, compare its provision with the constitutional articles and part.
(b) Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of Collegium system in India. (About 200 words)[7Marks]
What is collegium system? The Collegium system in India also called “Judges- selecting- Judges”, is the system by which the judges are appointed and transferred only by the judges.
Emerge out of 3 judges cases.
Debate of collegium is between independency of judiciary v/s transparency of judiciary.
Independence of judiciary.
No political interference.
Maintain constitutional Obligations.
Unconstitutional and autocratic: ‘Collegium’ is nowhere mentioned in the Constitution.
Promotes nepotism & favouritism.
Ignores SC’s own guidelines of seniority.
Inefficient: Collegium has not been able to prevent the increasing cases of vacancies of judges and cases in courts
(c) Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles are complementary and supplementary to one another.” Comment. (About 150 words) [6Marks]
Both Fundamental Rights and Directive Principle have a common goal and objective i.e. welfare of the citizen which is also stated in Preamble. Fundamental Rights are guaranteed for individuals and the State, as defined under Article 12, is responsible to provide the same, whereas Directive principle lays down the path which state wants to achieve but it is not guaranteed.
Supreme court in Dalmia cement v/s Union of India case held that FR & DPSP are complementary and supplementary to each other.
Protect the rights of the individual and work at a micro level.
If anybody feels that his rights are being violated can approach the court of law.
Scope of DPSP is limitless.
Protect the rights of a citizen and work at a macro level.
DPSP are not enforceable by law.
Q 4. (a) Discuss the key features of new Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital media ethics code)Rules (IT Rules), 2021.(About 200 words). [7Marks]
NEW IT RULES
These rules have been framed in exercise of powers under section 87(2) of the Information
Technology (IT) Act, 2000 and in supersession of the earlier Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines) Rules 2011.
Categories of Social Media Intermediaries: Significant Social media intermediaries and social media
Due Diligence to be Followed by Intermediaries.
Grievance Redressal Mechanism is Mandatory> Chief Compliance Officer, Compliance Report,
Self-Classification of Content for OTT five age based categories- U (Universal), U/A 7+, U/A 13+, U/A
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting shall formulate an oversight mechanism
(b)Write the important features of Prevention of Money Laundering Act of 2002 and its recent amendments. (About 100 words) [4Marks]
Money laundering is the illegal process of making large amounts of money generated by criminal activity, such as drug trafficking or terrorist funding, appear to have come from a legitimate source.
Salient features of PMLA ACT:-
Money Laundering was not an independent crime rather depended on another crime, known as the predicate offence or scheduled offence.
Under Section 3 of PMLA, the person shall be accused of money laundering if in any manner that person is directly or indirectly involved in the proceeds of the crime.
o Use or projecting as untainted property
o Claiming as untainted property
Continuing Nature of Offence.
Q5 (a) Outcome of Afghan peace process may have serious implications for the wider region. (About 250words)
The repercussions of the ongoing economic crisis in Sri Lanka extend beyond its borders. Discuss with specific reference to India. Also, mention the steps that India has taken to assist Sri Lanka tide over the crisis. (About 250 words) [10 Marks]
OUTCOME:- Taliban in Power.
On West Asia: Disturbance in whole Islamic countries. Rise of radical forces.
On Europe and America:- More threat for their internal security and push religious fundamental power in that region.
On India: Pakistan can use Taliban against India. Jolt Kashmir peace prog. , border area challenges, threat to Internal security, hamper peace prog. in Afghanistan
On China: Can face threat to terrorism, use Taliban to fulfil its geo political aims.
Sri Lanka has been facing worst economic crisis. Bcz of following reasons:
BOP crisis, downfall of Tourism, debt of china, IMF loans, agricultural reforms
Inflation 17%, debt to GDP 86.9% in 2019 to 105.6% in 2021, $ 51 billion foreign debt.
Rise of Tamil issue.
Strategic importance of China.
Impact on Indian economy.
Short term solution:
Line of credit.
Deliver necessary things like vegetables, fruits, medicine, water etc.
Petroleum product to Sri lanka.
(b) Why Gupta period is known as Golden period of Indian History. (About 150 words) [6Marks]
Elements of Golden age in Gupta period (320-550 AD). Founder Sri Gupta-
Polity: Gupta age witnessed political unification of India after long period of more than 500 years after the decline of Mauryans.
Economy: In ancient India, the Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins which were called ‘dinaras’ in their inscriptions.
Art and Literature: Gupta rulers were patrons of art and literature. For example, Samudragupta was represented on his coins playing the vina and Chandragupta II is credited with maintaining in his court nine luminaries. The two great epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were almost completed by the fourth century AD. Kalidasa belonged to this age. He was the greatest poet of classical Sanskrit literature and wrote Abhijnanashakuntalam which is very highly regarded in world literature.